LIMA, THE CITY OF THE KINGS
Lima is located in the central coast of Peru, in the Rímac valley, nex to the San Cristóbal hill.
Lima was founded by Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535. It was the capital of the viceroyalty of Peru and it is the capital of Peru and World Heritage site. With more than nine million inhabitants, Lima is the most populated city and it concentrates the third part of the Peruvian population.
Near to the city is located the San Lorenzo island, the biggest islands of Peru. It has 8 km. in lenght, 3 km. in width and 370 meters in height.
LIMA CITY: GENERAL INFORMATION
Annual 22.00 °C.
8 755 262 inhabitants (INEI 2014).
The city of Lima was founded by Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535. However the oldest historical remains is possible to find them during the Lima culture, during the Early Intermediate Period (200 A.D. - 650 A.D.) the center of power was Maranga. Other important places were: Pachacámac, Huaca Pucllana, Cajamarquilla and Catalina Huanca. One of the characteristics of the architecture is the use of small adobes.
Later there are archaeological remains of the Ichma culture (600 A.D. – 1000 A.D.) that is contemporary to the Wari expansion. During this time new establishments such as: Huaycán, Mateo Salado or Limatambo were built.
At the arrival of the Spaniards the valley of the Rímac belonged to the dominion of the Taulichusco civilization.
The first neighbours in Lima were people who were not according to live in Jauja city and as well as a group of colonists from Sangallan in Pisco.
It was from this Plaza where Francisco Pizarro began with their sword the layout of the city.
Around the Plaza Mayor are located the Government's Palace, the City Hall, the Cathedral and the Archbishop’s Palace. At the center of the plaza is located a beautiful fountain placed in 1651 during the viceroy's government García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, Count of Salvatierra. It was designed by Pedro Noguera and melted by Antonio de Rivas.
From this Plaza, the general José de San Martin proclaimed the independence of Peru on July 28, 1821.
It is located in the same place where Francisco Pizarro established the headquarters of his government.
The first construction was begun by Pizarro and was finished during the viceroy's government Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, Marquis of Cañete between 1566 and 1560.
The actual building dates from 1926 to 1938, this reconstruction was made according to the design of the Polish architect Ricardo of Jaxa Malachowski.
THE CITY HALL
The first construction was in use until 1923 when a fire destroyed it completely.
The actual building was inaugurated on July 2, 1944. It was designed by the architects José Álvarez Calderón and Emilio Harth-Terré. Its interior decoration was led by Ricardo Malachowski.The facade is neo-colonial.
The cathedral was built between 1596 – 1622 and was designed by Francisco de Becerra. However, this construction was destroyed by the earthquake in 1746.
The facade was built by Martínez de Arrona and Pedro Noguera, it is look as a wooden altarpiece but it is made in stone from Panama.
After the earthquake in 1940 the Cathedral was restored by Emilio Harth-Terré.
In their interior they highlights are the altarpieces of Saint Toribio de Mogrovejo, Saint John the Baptist and the Lady of the Candles.
In the baptistery is located the Francisco Pizarro crypt. Inside a lead box is placed his skull.
THE ARCHBISHOP PALACE
The building is in neo-colonial style and it was designed by the architect Ricardo Malachowski. Its facade was inspired in the Torre Tagle palace. Its inauguration took place on December 8, 1924. The most outstanding of the facade are the beautiful wooden balconies.
THE SANTO DOMINGO CHURCH
It is considered as the most characteristic church in Gothic style in the Peru with as well Mudéjar expression.
It stands out the main cloister in Baroque style that is decorated with thirty thousand tiles, this was carried out by Hernando de Valladares.
SAN FRANCISCO CHURCH AND CONVENT
The church and old convent were destroyed by the earthquake on November 13, 1655. The new church was designed by the Portuguese architect Constantino de Vasconcelos and the local master builder Manuel de Escobar. It was inaugurated on October 3, 1672.
After the earthquake in 1746 most of the altarpieces were destroyed. The restoration was led by the presbyter Matías Maestro who also made the main altarpiece in neoclassical style.
Among the most outstanding in the church stands out the tiles that were brought from Seville donated by different people, among them Catalina Huanca, goddaughter of Francisco Pizarro who arrived from Huancayo with fifty mules charged with gold and silver.
Under the temple the highlight are the catacombs where is estimated were buried near twenty-five thousand people.
LA MERCED CHURCH
The church was reconstructed after the earthquake of 1687. The facade-altarpiece dates from 1697 and 1704 and is in Baroque style and it was worked in soft granite from Panama.
The main altarpiece was reconstructed by the presbyter Matías Maestro after the earthquake of 1746. The gilding belongs to 1810 and it was made by the painting Félix Batlle.
In the temple are preserved the remains of Pedro Urraca, the one who are attributed different miracles.
SAN PEDRO CHURCH
The first day was San Pablo but after the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767, it was called San Pedro.
It is was built in Renaissance style between 1624 and 1638 taking like a model the planes of the Gesú church in Rome. San Pedro church and the cathedral are the two only temples that have three access doors. According to some traditions the Jesuits built the church making casus omissus to an ecclesiastical disposition that ordered that only a Cathedral church can have this number of entrances, for that reason was prohibited to open the three doors at the same time.
The church preserves one of the oldest series of angels in America that were painted by Bartolomé Román, there are also canvas of the famous Jesuit painter Bernardo Bitti.
It is located next to the Government Palace. It is the only one house where the owners descend from the first proprietor, the captain Jerónimo de Aliaga y Ramírez who accompanied Pizarro in the Isla del Gallo. It is considered as the oldest house in America because of was built in 1535. The house is located on the site of an indigenous temple belonging to the curaca Taulichusco. Among the principal rooms are preserved the Tiles Living room, the Golden Living room, the Chapel and also a bedroom where a colonial bed is conserved.
TORRE TAGLE PALACE
The house was constructed between 1733 and about 1740 by Mr. José Bernardo de Tagle y Bracho, who in 1730 the king Felipe V granted him the title of 1st marquis of Torre Tagle.
This house was residence of José Bernardo de Torre Tagle y Portocarrero who was president of Peru and intendant of Trujillo city. The highlights are the wooden balconies in Mudéjar style. From 1920 this house is the headquarter of the Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
It was built in 1760. Its style has so much reminiscences from the viceroyalty and the beginnings of the Republic period. The house was inherited at the beginning of the XX century by the historian José de la Riva-Agüero y Osma. After his death in 1944, according to his testament the house and his properties were donated to the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
SAN MARTIN PLAZA
It is dedicated to the liberator José de San Martin. It was inaugurated on July 27, 1921 in commemoration to the Centennial of the Independence of Peru. The Plaza was designed by the Spanish architect and sculptor Manuel Piqueras Cotolí and the San Martin sculpture was work of the Spanish sculptor Mariano Benllieure y Gil.
This plaza was transformed in 1853. The monument to Bolívar was a work of the Italian sculptor Adamo Todolini. The inauguration ceremony was carried out on December 9, 1859 commemorating an anniversary of the battle of Ayacucho.
PASEO DE AGUAS
It was made during the viceroy's government of Amat and Junyent. Its construction was work of the Spanish Juan Gutiérrez. The walk of waters according to the Lima traditions was the gift of the viceroy Amat to the actress Micaela Villegas, about whom he madly fell in love.
RAFAEL LARCO HERRERA ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM
It is the most complete museum dedicated to the cultures of the north of Peru. It was founded in 1926 by Rafael Larco Hoyle in the Chicama valley, in the town of Chiclín, 50 kilometres to the north of Trujillo city.
The displays remarkable chronological galleries providing an excellent overview on 3000 years of development of Peruvian pre-Columbian history. Located in a unique vice-royal mansion of the 18th century built over a 7th century pre-Columbian pyramid is surrounded by beautiful gardens. The Larco Museum also features the finest gold and silver collection from Ancient Peru and the famous erotic archaeological collection, one of the most visited Peruvian tourist attractions.
NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND HISTORY OF PERU
This museum offers a detailed information of the historical process of Peru. The first halls are dedicated to the prehispanic process, from the oldest period until the Inca time. The exhibition allows to know the diverse artistic manifestations: ceramic, textiles, goldsmithery and sculpture of the most important cultures, such as: Chavín, Nasca, Paracas, Wari, Moche, Lambayeque and Chimú.
It is one of the most exclusive residential areas in Lima. It corresponds to the modern part of the city where and deluxe stores are located large houses, business centers. Formerly it was a country property, but from the 1920’s it was planned to serve as residential area, its design was led by Manuel Picaras Cotolí.
During the XIX century Miraflores was an area for agriculture but in the past of the time the indians start to sell their farms to different people. From 1970’s Miraflores began to become the center of the tourist activity in Lima.
In Miraflores are located the most modern hotels and as well the best restaurants. In front to the Principal Park are placed the church of the Lady of the Miraculous built in 1939 and the City Hall in 1941, both in neo-colonial style.
It is an emblematic place associated with the Lima society. The most visited site is “El Puente de Los Suspiros” (Bridge of Sighs) built in wood in 1876. Its function was to allow the connection of the two borders of one ravine.
An important site to visit is the church La Ermita that initially was a small chapel used by the fishermen. During the earthquake of 1940 was destroyed and it was moved on in front to the Municipal Plaza. The new church was built in neo-colonial style and it was consecrated by the archbishop of Lima Juan Landazuri in 1963.
It is also called Huaca Juliana, it is located in the district of Miraflores. Huaca Pucllana was one of the most important centers of the Lima culture. Its name comes from the Quechua language: “Pukllay” which means to play, therefore its name would be “place of games” in reference to the ceremonial games that were carried out in the temple.
The huaca is composed by two areas: the first one is composed by a great pyramid 22 meters height. The second area is smaller and it is made up of plazas with benches that would have had a daily function.
The huaca Pucllana lost its importance during the domain of the Huari civilization.
It was the most important religious sanctuary in this region. It is located on the right riverbank of Lurín River and occupies an area of 200 hectares.
According to the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Pachacamac derives from two Quechua words: “Pacha”: world and “Camac”: to encourage.
On the summit of the temple was located the wooden idol of Pachacamac.
Pachacamac is located on a flat area where there are three rocky promontories over which the most important buildings were built:
- The Temple of the Sun
This construction is 40 meters height, it is the tallest in the sanctuary and the best preserved.
- The Temple Primigenio
It is a construction made in small adobes that permit to suppose it was one of the first structures of the place.
The historical remains point out the facade in front the sea was the best decorated. This building presents vain trapezoidal reason why it is possible to indicate that it was built during the Inca time.
- The Taurichumpi Complex
It is known with this name because of was the residence of the curaca Taurichumpi during the Spanish invasion.
Other constructions are: the Temple of the Moon or Acllahuasi, the Plaza of the Pilgrims, the Group of Huacas or Palacios and the Pachacamac temple.